Research in micro-aerial vehicle (MAV) construction, control, and high-density power sources is enabling swarms of MAVs as a new class of mobile sensing systems. For efficient operation, such systems must adapt to dynamic environments, cope with uncertainty in sensing and control, and operate with limited resources. We propose a novel system architecture based on a hive-drone model that simplifies the functionality of an individual MAV to a sequence of sensing and actuation commands with no in-field communication. This decision simplifies the hardware and software complexity of individual MAVs and moves the complexity of coordination entirely to a central hive computer. We present Karma, a system for programming and managing MAV swarms. Through simulation and testbed experiments we demonstrate how applications in Karma can run on limited resources, are robust to individual MAV failure, and adapt to changes in the environment.
Muniswamy-Reddy, Kiran-Kumar, Peter Macko, and Margo Seltzer. 2010. “Provenance for the cloud.” Proceedings of the 8th USENIX conference on File and storage technologies, 15–14. Berkeley, CA, USA: USENIX Association. Publisher's Version