Editors: ex, vi, view

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

NAME
ex, vi, view - text editors

SYNOPSIS
ex [-eFRrsv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
vi [-eFlRrv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
view [-eFRrv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
Vi  is  a  screen oriented text editor.  Ex is a line-ori-
ented text editor.  Ex and vi are different interfaces  to
the  same  program,  and it is possible to switch back and
forth during an edit session.  View is the  equivalent  of
using the -R (read-only) option of vi.

This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi ver-
sions of the ex/vi text editors.  Nex/nvi are intended  as
bug-for-bug   compatible  replacements  for  the  original
Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution  (4BSD)  ex  and  vi
programs.   For  the  rest of this manual page, nex/nvi is
used only when it's necessary to distinguish it  from  the
historic implementations of ex/vi.

This  manual  page  is intended for users already familiar
with ex/vi.  Anyone else should almost  certainly  read  a
good  tutorial  on the editor before this manual page.  If
you're in an unfamiliar environment,  and  you  absolutely
have  to get work done immediately, read the section after
the options description, entitled Fast Startup''.   It's
probably enough to get you going.

The following options are available:

-c     Execute  cmd  immediately  after  starting the edit
session.  Particularly useful for initial position-
ing  in  the  file,  however  cmd is not limited to
positioning commands.  This  is  the  POSIX  1003.2
interface   for   the   historic  +cmd''  syntax.
Nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax.

-e     Start editing in ex mode, as if  the  command  name
were ex.

-F     Don't  copy  the entire file when first starting to
edit.  (The default is to make a copy in case some-
one  else  modifies  the file during your edit ses-
sion.)

-l     Start editing with the lisp and  showmatch  options
set.

-R     Start  editing in read-only mode, as if the command
name was view, or the readonly option was set.

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VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

-r     Recover the specified files, or, if  no  files  are
specified,  list the files that could be recovered.
If no  recoverable  files  by  the  specified  name
exist,  the  file is edited as if the -r option had
not been specified.

-s     Enter batch mode; applicable only to ex  edit  ses-
sions.   Batch  mode  is  useful  when  running  ex
scripts.  Prompts, informative messages  and  other
user  oriented  message  are  turned  off,  and  no
startup files or environmental variables are  read.
This is the POSIX 1003.2 interface for the historic
-'' argument.  Nex/nvi supports both the old  and
new syntax.

-t     Start   editing   at   the   specified  tag.   (See
ctags(1)).

-w     Set the initial window size to the specified number
of lines.

-v     Start  editing  in  vi mode, as if the command name
was vi or view.

Command input for ex/vi is read from the  standard  input.
In  the  vi interface, it is an error if standard input is
not a terminal.  In the ex interface, if standard input is
not  a terminal, ex will read commands from it regardless,
however, the session will be a batch mode session, exactly
as if the -s option had been specified.

Ex/vi  exits  0 on success, and greater than 0 if an error
occurs.

FAST STARTUP
This section will tell you the  minimum  amount  that  you
need to do simple editing tasks using vi.  If you've never
used any screen editor before, you're likely to have prob-
lems even with this simple introduction.  In that case you
should find someone that already knows vi  and  have  them
walk you through this section.

Vi is a screen editor.  This means that it takes up almost
the entire screen, displaying part of  the  file  on  each
screen  line, except for the last line of the screen.  The
last line of the screen is used for you to  give  commands
to vi, and for vi to give information to you.

The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a
modeful editor, i.e. you are either entering text  or  you
are  executing  commands,  and you have to be in the right
mode to do one or the other.  You will be in command  mode
when  you  first start editing a file.  There are commands
that switch you into input mode.  There is  only  one  key

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VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

that takes you out of input mode, and that is the <escape>
key.  (Key names are written using less-than and  greater-
than  signs, e.g.  <escape> means the escape'' key, usu-
ally labeled esc'' on  your  terminal's  keyboard.)   If
you're  ever  confused  as  to  which mode you're in, keep
entering the <escape> key until vi beeps at you.   (Gener-
ally,  vi  will  beep  at  you if you try and do something
that's not allowed.  It will also display error messages.)

To   start   editing   a  file,  enter  the  command  vi
file_name<carriage-return>''.   The  command  you   should
enter as soon as you start editing is :set verbose show-
mode<carriage-return>''.  This will make the  editor  give
you verbose error messages and display the current mode at
the bottom of the screen.

The commands to move around the file are:

h      Move the cursor left one character.

j      Move the cursor down one line.

k      Move the cursor up one line.

l      Move the cursor right one character.

<cursor-arrows>
The cursor arrow keys should work, too.

/text<carriage-return>
Search for the string text''  in  the  file,  and
move the cursor to its first character.

The commands to enter new text are:

a      Append new text, after the cursor.

i      Insert new text, before the cursor.

o      Open  a  new  line below the line the cursor is on,
and start entering text.

O      Open a new line above the line the  cursor  is  on,
and start entering text.

<escape>
Once you've entered input mode using the one of the
a, i, O or o commands, use <escape> to quit  enter-

The commands to copy text are:

yy     Copy the line the cursor is on.

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VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

p      Append the copied line after the line the cursor is
on.

The commands to delete text are:

dd     Delete the line the cursor is on.

x      Delete the character the cursor is on.

The commands to write the file are:

:w<carriage-return>
Write the file back to the file with the name  that
you  originally  used as an argument on the vi com-
mand line.

:w file_name<carriage-return>
Write the file back  to  the  file  with  the  name
file_name''.

The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are:

:q<carriage-return>
Quit  editing  and leave vi (if you've modified the
file, but not saved your changes, vi will refuse to
quit).

:q!<carriage-return>
Quit,  discarding  any  modifications  that you may

One final caution.  Unusual characters can  take  up  more
than  one column on the screen, and long lines can take up
more than a single screen line.  The above  commands  work
on physical'' characters and lines, i.e. they affect the
entire line no matter how many screen lines  it  takes  up
and the entire character no matter how many screen columns
it takes up.

VI COMMANDS
The following section describes the commands available  in
the  command  mode of the vi editor.  In each entry below,
the tag line is a usage synopsis for the  command  charac-
ter.

[count] <control-A>
Search forward count times for the current word.

[count] <control-B>
Page backwards count screens.

[count] <control-D>
Scroll forward count lines.

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VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

[count] <control-E>
Scroll  forward  count  lines,  leaving the current
line and column as is, if possible.

[count] <control-F>
Page forward count screens.

<control-G>
Display the file information.

<control-H>

[count] h
Move the cursor back count characters in  the  cur-
rent line.

[count] <control-J>

[count] <control-N>

[count] j
Move  the  cursor down count lines without changing
the current column.

<control-L>

<control-R>
Repaint the screen.

[count] <control-M>

[count] +
Move the cursor down count lines to the first  non-
blank character of that line.

[count] <control-P>

[count] k
Move  the  cursor  up count lines, without changing
the current column.

<control-T>

<control-U>
Scroll backwards count lines.

<control-W>
Switch to the next lower screen in the window,  or,
to  the  first screen if there are no lower screens
in the window.

<control-Y>
Scroll backwards count lines, leaving  the  current

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VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

line and column as is, if possible.

<control-Z>
Suspend the current editor session.

<escape>
Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands.

<control-]>
Push a tag reference onto the tag stack.

<control-^>
Switch to the most recently edited file.

[count] <space>

[count] l
Move  the  cursor  forward count characters without
changing the current line.

[count] ! motion shell-argument(s)
Replace text with results from a shell command.

[count] # #|+|-
Increment or decrement the cursor number.

[count] $Move the cursor to the end of a line. % Move to the matching character. & Repeat the previous substitution command on the current line. '<character> <character> Return to a context marked by the character <char- acter>. [count] ( Back up count sentences. [count] ) Move forward count sentences. [count] , Reverse find character count times. [count] - Move to first nonblank of the previous line, count times. May 18, 1996 6 VI(1) VI(1) [count] . Repeat the last vi command that modified text. /RE<carriage-return> /RE/ [offset]<carriage-return> ?RE<carriage-return> ?RE? [offset]<carriage-return> N n Search forward or backward for a regular expres- sion. 0 Move to the first character in the current line. : Execute an ex command. [count] ; Repeat the last character find count times. [count] < motion [count] > motion Shift lines left or right. @ buffer Execute a named buffer. [count] A Enter input mode, appending the text after the end of the line. [count] B Move backwards count bigwords. [buffer] [count] C Change text from the current position to the end- of-line. [buffer] D Delete text from the current position to the end- of-line. [count] E Move forward count end-of-bigwords. [count] F <character> Search count times backward through the current line for <character>. May 18, 1996 7 VI(1) VI(1) [count] G Move to line count, or the last line of the file if count not specified. [count] H Move to the screen line count - 1 lines below the top of the screen. [count] I Enter input mode, inserting the text at the begin- ning of the line. [count] J Join lines. [count] L Move to the screen line count - 1 lines above the bottom of the screen. M Move to the screen line in the middle of the screen. [count] O Enter input mode, appending text in a new line above the current line. [buffer] P Insert text from a buffer. Q Exit vi (or visual) mode and switch to ex mode. [count] R Enter input mode, replacing the characters in the current line. [buffer] [count] S Substitute count lines. [count] T <character> Search backwards, count times, through the current line for the character after the specified <charac- ter>. U Restore the current line to its state before the cursor last moved to it. [count] W Move forward count bigwords. [buffer] [count] X Delete count characters before the cursor. [buffer] [count] Y Copy (or yank'') count lines into the specified May 18, 1996 8 VI(1) VI(1) buffer. ZZ Write the file and exit vi. [count] Move forward count section boundaries. ^ Move to first nonblank character on the current line. [count] _ Move down count - 1 lines, to the first nonblank character. [count] a Enter input mode, appending the text after the cur- sor. [count] b Move backwards count words. [buffer] [count] c motion Change a region of text. [buffer] [count] d motion Delete a region of text. [count] e Move forward count end-of-words. [count] f<character> Search forward, count times, through the rest of the current line for <character>. [count] i Enter input mode, inserting the text before the cursor. m <character> Save the current context (line and column) as <character>. [count] o Enter input mode, appending text in a new line under the current line. [buffer] p Append text from a buffer. [count] r <character> Replace count characters. May 18, 1996 9 VI(1) VI(1) [buffer] [count] s Substitute count characters in the current line starting with the current character. [count] t <character> Search forward, count times, through the current line for the character immediately before <charac- ter>. u Undo the last change made to the file. [count] w Move forward count words. [buffer] [count] x Delete count characters. [buffer] [count] y motion Copy (or yank'') a text region specified by the count and motion into a buffer. [count1] z [count2] -|.|+|^|<carriage-return> Redraw, optionally repositioning and resizing the screen. [count] { Move backward count paragraphs. [count] | Move to a specific column position on the current line. [count] } Move forward count paragraphs. [count] ~ Reverse the case of the next count character(s). [count] ~ motion Reverse the case of the characters in a text region specified by the count and motion. <interrupt> Interrupt the current operation. VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the text input mode of the vi editor. <nul> Replay the previous input. <control-D> Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary. May 18, 1996 10 VI(1) VI(1) ^<control-D> Erase all of the autoindent characters, and reset the autoindent level. 0<control-D> Erase all of the autoindent characters. <control-T> Insert sufficient <tab> and <space> characters to move forward to the next shiftwidth column bound- ary. <erase> <control-H> Erase the last character. <literal next> Quote the next character. <escape> Resolve all text input into the file, and return to command mode. <line erase> Erase the current line. <control-W> <word erase> Erase the last word. The definition of word is dependent on the altwerase and ttywerase options. <control-X>[0-9A-Fa-f]+ Insert a character with the specified hexadecimal value into the text. <interrupt> Interrupt text input mode, returning to command mode. EX COMMANDS The following section describes the commands available in the ex editor. In each entry below, the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command. <end-of-file> Scroll the screen. ! argument(s) [range]! argument(s) Execute a shell command, or filter lines through a May 18, 1996 11 VI(1) VI(1) shell command. " A comment. [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags] [range] # [count] [flags] Display the selected lines, each preceded with its line number. @ buffer * buffer Execute a buffer. [line] a[ppend][!] The input text is appended after the specified line. [range] c[hange][!] [count] The input text replaces the specified range. cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset Execute a Cscope command. [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags] Delete the lines from the file. di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags] Display buffers, Cscope connections, screens or tags. e[dit][!] [+cmd] [file] ex[!] [+cmd] [file] Edit a different file. exu[sage] [command] Display usage for an ex command. f[ile] [file] Display and optionally change the file name. fg [name] Vi mode only. Foreground the specified screen. [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands] [range] v /pattern/ [commands] Apply commands to lines matching (or not matching) a pattern. he[lp] Display a help message. May 18, 1996 12 VI(1) VI(1) [line] i[nsert][!] The input text is inserted before the specified line. [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags] Join lines of text together. [range] l[ist] [count] [flags] Display the lines unambiguously. map[!] [lhs rhs] Define or display maps (for vi only). [line] ma[rk] <character> [line] k <character> Mark the line with the mark <character>. [range] m[ove] line Move the specified lines after the target line. mk[exrc][!] file Write the abbreviations, editor options and maps to the specified file. n[ext][!] [file ...] Edit the next file from the argument list. [line] o[pen] /pattern/ [flags] Enter open mode. pre[serve] Save the file in a form that can later be recovered using the ex -r option. prev[ious][!] Edit the previous file from the argument list. [range] p[rint] [count] [flags] Display the specified lines. [line] pu[t] [buffer] Append buffer contents to the current line. q[uit][!] End the editing session. [line] r[ead][!] [file] Read a file. rec[over] file Recover file if it was previously saved. May 18, 1996 13 VI(1) VI(1) res[ize] [+|-]size Vi mode only. Grow or shrink the current screen. rew[ind][!] Rewind the argument list. se[t] [option[=[value]] ...] [nooption ...] [option? ...] [all] Display or set editor options. sh[ell] Run a shell program. so[urce] file Read and execute ex commands from a file. [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/] [options] [count] [flags] [range] & [options] [count] [flags] [range] ~ [options] [count] [flags] Make substitutions. su[spend][!] st[op][!] <suspend> Suspend the edit session. ta[g][!] tagstring Edit the file containing the specified tag. tagn[ext][!] Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag. tagp[op][!] [file | number] Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack. tagp[rev][!] Edit the file containing the previous context for the current tag. unm[ap][!] lhs Unmap a mapped string. ve[rsion] Display the version of the ex/vi editor. [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags] Ex mode only. Enter vi. May 18, 1996 14 VI(1) VI(1) vi[sual][!] [+cmd] [file] Vi mode only. Edit a new file. viu[sage] [command] Display usage for a vi command. [range] w[rite][!] [>>] [file] [range] w[rite] [!] [file] [range] wn[!] [>>] [file] [range] wq[!] [>>] [file] Write the file. [range] x[it][!] [file] Write the file if it has been modified. [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count] Copy the specified lines to a buffer. [line] z [type] [count] [flags] Adjust the window. SET OPTIONS There are a large number of options that may be set (or unset) to change the editor's behavior. This section describes the options, their abbreviations and their default values. In each entry below, the first part of the tag line is the full name of the option, followed by any equivalent abbre- viations. The part in square brackets is the default value of the option. Most of the options are boolean, i.e. they are either on or off, and do not have an associ- ated value. Options apply to both ex and vi modes, unless otherwise specified. altwerase [off] Vi only. Select an alternative word erase algo- rithm. autoindent, ai [off] Automatically indent new lines. autoprint, ap [off] Ex only. Display the current line automatically. autowrite, aw [off] Write modified files automatically when changing files. May 18, 1996 15 VI(1) VI(1) backup [""] Backup files before they are overwritten. beautify, bf [off] Discard control characters. cdpath [environment variable CDPATH, or current directory] The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command. cedit [no default] Set the character to edit the colon command-line history. columns, co [80] Set the number of columns in the screen. comment [off] Vi only. Skip leading comments in files. directory, dir [environment variable TMPDIR, or /tmp] The directory where temporary files are created. edcompatible, ed [off] Remember the values of the c'' and g'' suffices to the substitute commands, instead of initializing them as unset for each new command. errorbells, eb [off] Ex only. Announce error messages with a bell. exrc, ex [off] Read the startup files in the local directory. extended [off] Regular expressions are extended (i.e. egrep(1)-style) expressions. filec [no default] Set the character to perform file path completion on the colon command line. flash [on] Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error. hardtabs, ht [8] Set the spacing between hardware tab settings. iclower [off] Makes all Regular Expressions case-insensitive, as long as an upper-case letter does not appear in the search string. May 18, 1996 16 VI(1) VI(1) ignorecase, ic [off] Ignore case differences in regular expressions. keytime [6] The 10th's of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to complete a key mapping. leftright [off] Vi only. Do left-right scrolling. lines, li [24] Vi only. Set the number of lines in the screen. lisp [off] Vi only. Modify various search commands and options to work with Lisp. This option is not yet implemented. list [off] Display lines in an unambiguous fashion. lock [on] Attempt to get an exclusive lock on any file being edited, read or written. magic [on] Treat certain characters specially in regular expressions. matchtime [7] Vi only. The 10th's of a second ex/vi pauses on the matching character when the showmatch option is set. mesg [on] Permit messages from other users. modelines, modeline [off] Read the first and last few lines of each file for ex commands. This option will never be imple- mented. noprint [""] Characters that are never handled as printable characters. number, nu [off] Precede each line displayed with its current line number. octal [off] Display unknown characters as octal numbers, instead of the default hexadecimal. May 18, 1996 17 VI(1) VI(1) open [on] Ex only. If this option is not set, the open and visual commands are disallowed. optimize, opt [on] Vi only. Optimize text throughput to dumb termi- nals. This option is not yet implemented. paragraphs, para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp] Vi only. Define additional paragraph boundaries for the { and } commands. print [""] Characters that are always handled as printable characters. prompt [on] Ex only. Display a command prompt. readonly, ro [off] Mark the file and session as read-only. recdir [/var/tmp/vi.recover] The directory where recovery files are stored. redraw, re [off] Vi only. Simulate an intelligent terminal on a dumb one. This option is not yet implemented. remap [on] Remap keys until resolved. report [5] Set the number of lines about which the editor reports changes or yanks. ruler [off] Vi only. Display a row/column ruler on the colon command line. scroll, scr [window / 2] Set the number of lines scrolled. searchincr [off] Makes the / and ? commands incremental. sections, sect [NHSHH HUnhsh] Vi only. Define additional section boundaries for the commands. secure [off] Turns off all access to external programs. May 18, 1996 18 VI(1) VI(1) shell, sh [environment variable SHELL, or /bin/sh] Select the shell used by the editor. shellmeta [~{[*?$'"\]
Set  the  meta  characters  checked to determine if
file name expansion is necessary.

shiftwidth, sw [8]
Set the autoindent and  shift  command  indentation
width.

showmatch, sm [off]
Vi  only.   Note matching {'' and ('' for }''
and )'' characters.

showmode [off]
Vi only.  Display the current  editor  mode  and  a
modified'' flag.

sidescroll [16]
Vi  only.   Set the amount a left-right scroll will
shift.

slowopen, slow [off]
Delay display updating  during  text  input.   This
option is not yet implemented.

sourceany [off]
Read  startup  files not owned by the current user.
This option will never be implemented.

tabstop, ts [8]
This option sets tab widths for the editor display.

taglength, tl [0]
Set  the  number  of  significant characters in tag
names.

tags, tag [tags /var/db/libc.tags /sys/kern/tags]
Set the list of tags files.

term, ttytype, tty [environment variable TERM]
Set the terminal type.

terse [off]
This option has historically made  editor  messages
less verbose.  It has no effect in this implementa-
tion.

tildeop
Modify the ~ command to take an associated  motion.

timeout, to [on]
Time out on keys which may be mapped.

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VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

ttywerase [off]
Vi only.  Select an alternative erase algorithm.

verbose [off]
Vi only.  Display an error message for every error.

w300 [no default]
Vi only.  Set the window size if the baud  rate  is
less than 1200 baud.

w1200 [no default]
Vi  only.   Set the window size if the baud rate is
equal to 1200 baud.

w9600 [no default]
Vi only.  Set the window size if the baud  rate  is
greater than 1200 baud.

warn [on]
Ex  only.   This option causes a warning message to
the terminal if the file has been  modified,  since
it was last written, before a !  command.

window, w, wi [environment variable LINES]
Set the window size for the screen.

wraplen, wl [0]
Vi  only.  Break lines automatically, the specified
number of columns from the  left-hand  margin.   If
both  the  wraplen  and wrapmargin edit options are
set, the wrapmargin value is used.

wrapmargin, wm [0]
Vi only.  Break lines automatically, the  specified
number  of  columns from the right-hand margin.  If
both the wraplen and wrapmargin  edit  options  are
set, the wrapmargin value is used.

wrapscan, ws [on]
Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of
the file.

writeany, wa [off]
Turn off file-overwriting checks.

ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES
COLUMNS
The number of columns on the  screen.   This  value
overrides  any  system or terminal specific values.
If the COLUMNS environmental variable  is  not  set
when  ex/vi  runs, or the columns option is explic-
itly reset by the user, ex/vi enters the value into
the environment.

May 18, 1996                        20

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

EXINIT A list of ex startup commands, read if the variable
NEXINIT is not set.

HOME   The user's home  directory,  used  as  the  initial
directory path for the startup $HOME/.nexrc'' and $HOME/.exrc'' files.  This value is also used  as
the default directory for the vi cd command.

LINES  The number of rows on the screen.  This value over-
rides any system or terminal specific  values.   If
the  LINES  environmental  variable is not set when
ex/vi runs, or the lines option is explicitly reset
by  the user, ex/vi enters the value into the envi-
ronment.

NEXINIT
A list of ex startup commands.

SHELL  The user's shell of  choice  (see  also  the  shell
option).

TERM   The  user's terminal type.  The default is the type
unknown''.  If the TERM environmental variable is
not  set  when  ex/vi  runs,  or the term option is
explicitly reset by  the  user,  ex/vi  enters  the
value into the environment.

TMPDIR The  location  used  to stored temporary files (see
also the directory edit option).

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
SIGALRM
Vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups of file
modifications and to display busy'' messages when
operations are likely to take a long time.

SIGHUP

SIGTERM
If the current buffer has changed since it was last
written  in  its  entirety,  the editor attempts to
save the modified file so it can  be  later  recov-
ered.  See the vi/ex Reference manual section enti-
tled Recovery'' for more information.

SIGINT When an interrupt occurs, the current operation  is
halted,  and  the  editor  returns  to  the command
level.  If interrupted during text input, the  text
already  input  is resolved into the file as if the
text input had been normally terminated.

SIGWINCH
The screen is resized.   See  the  vi/ex  Reference
manual  section  entitled Sizing the Screen'' for

May 18, 1996                        21

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

SIGCONT

SIGQUIT

SIGTSTP
Vi/ex ignores these signals.

FILES
/bin/sh
The default user shell.

/etc/vi.exrc
System-wide vi startup file.

/tmp   Temporary file directory.

/var/tmp/vi.recover
The default recovery file directory.

$HOME/.nexrc 1st choice for user's home directory startup file.$HOME/.exrc
2nd  choice for user's home directory startup file.

.nexrc 1st choice for local directory startup file.

.exrc  2nd choice for local directory startup file.

ctags(1), more(3), curses(3), dbopen(3)

The Vi Quick Reference'' card.

An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi'',  found  in
the UNIX User's Manual Supplementary Documents'' section
of both the 4.3BSD and 4.4BSD manual sets.  This  document
is  the  closest thing available to an introduction to the
vi screen editor.

Ex Reference Manual (Version 3.7)'', found in the UNIX
User's  Manual  Supplementary  Documents'' section of both
the 4.3BSD and 4.4BSD manual sets.  This document  is  the
final  reference for the ex editor, as distributed in most
historic 4BSD and System V systems.

Edit: A tutorial'', found in the  UNIX  User's  Manual
Supplementary  Documents''  section  of  the 4.3BSD manual
set.  This document is an introduction to a simple version
of the ex screen editor.

Ex/Vi  Reference  Manual'',  found  in the UNIX User's

May 18, 1996                        22

VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

Manual Supplementary Documents''  section  of  the  4.4BSD
manual  set.  This document is the final reference for the
nex/nvi text editors, as distributed in 4.4BSD and 4.4BSD-
Lite.

Roff source for all of these documents is distributed with
nex/nvi in the nvi/USD.doc directory of the nex/nvi source
code.

The   files   autowrite'',  input'',  quoting''  and
structures'' found in the  nvi/docs/internals  directory
of the nex/nvi source code.

HISTORY
The  nex/nvi  replacements  for  the  ex/vi  editor  first
appeared in 4.4BSD.

STANDARDS
Nex/nvi is close to IEEE Std1003.2 (POSIX'').  That doc-
ument  differs  from  historical ex/vi practice in several
places; there are changes to be made on both sides.

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